Aluminium properties

 

With 8%, aluminium is the third most common element on earth after oxygen and silicon. Due to its low density of 2.7g / cm³, it has only a third of the weight of steel and is almost half as heavy as titanium. The weight of the different metals depends primarily on the alloy used. For carbon, the weight is mainly dependent on the resin mixture used.

 

Specific weight:

Steel:               7,5g – 8,5g / cm³

Titanium:         4,5g – 4,8g / cm³

Aluminium:      2,7g / cm³

Carbon:           1,5g / cm³

 

Aluminium alloys combined very many advantages. Compared to steel, aluminium is very light and at the same time very stable. It can be hardened and many high-strength alloys with specific properties are available. For many applications the strength is sufficient and due to the advantages aluminium is often the best material choice.

 

Further advantages are the insensitivity to temperature fluctuations, it is UV-resistant, corrosion-resistant, electrically conductive, hygienic and magnetically neutral. As a surface finish, aluminium can be powder-coated or anodised in almost all colours. Passivation is also possible, it has the advantage that the surface is electrically conductive. This is a very important property for many applications.

 

Comparison of aluminium and steel

In the following table we compare the properties of aluminium and steel. For many properties, aluminium is better than steel. It must also be clearly stated that for some applications there is no way around steel.

 

Property Aluminium Steel
weight very low (2,7g / m³) high (7,5g - 8,5g / m³)
Durability very high very high
Formability very high partly high, depending on steel grade
Machining possibilities practivally everything possible partly limited, depending on steel grade
Corrosion none possible, even with stainless stell under certain certain circumstances
Thermal conductivity very good average
Currnet conductivity very good average
Hygiene and food safety very good good for certain steee alloys also very good
Weatherproof very high high with corresponding stelle alloys, oderwise low
Ecologiy

100% recyclable, high energy consumption

during prodution

Extraction requires less energy input,

therefore an ecologival advantage

Aluminium alloy properties

Aluminium alloys have different specific properties that combine advantages and disadvantages. Depending on the application, it is recommended to use the right alloy to take advantage of the benefits.

 

Aluminium alloys mainly consist of the following elements:

  • Magnesium (Mg)
  • Silicon (Si)
  • Manganese (Mn)
  • Zinc (Zn)
  • Copperr (Ku)

The different elements change the properties of aluminium alloys as follows.

 

Element: Eigenschaft:
Magnesium (Mg)

Increases strengh and

Corrosion resistance very strong

Silicon (Si)

Improves the flow properties and

is therefore used for casting alloys

Manganese (Mn)

Provides good formability and

inhibits recrystallisation

Zinc (Zn)

Increases the strength and hadness,

witch Corrosion resistance becommes worse

Copper (Ku)

Increases the strength and hadness,

witch Corrosion resistance becommes worse

Aluminium alloy table - overview for machining

In the following table you will find an overview of the different common aluminium alloys and their properties as far as machining is concerned. We have evaluated the topics forming, machining, welding, corrosion and anodising in a table.

 

 Aluminium EN-Norm

 old Norm  Forming  Machining  Welding  Corrosion  Anodizing
 EN AW-1050A  AL99,5  very good  difficult  very good  very good  good
 EN AW-1350  E-AL  very good  difficult  very good  very good  good
 EN AW-2007  AlCuMgPb  moderate  very good  moderate  moderate  difficult
 EN AW-2011  AlCUBiPb  moderate  very good  moderate  moderate  difficult
 EN AW-2017  AlCuMg1  moderate  very good  difficult  moderate  difficult
 EN AW-2024  AlCuMg2  moderate  good  difficult  moderate  difficult
 EN AW-5005  ALMg1  very good  moderate  very good  very good  good
 EN AW-5056A  AlMg5  moderate  very good  very good  very good  good
 EN AW-5083  AlMg4,5Mn  moderate  very good  very good  very good  good
 EN AW-5754  AlMg3  good  very good  very good  very good  good
 EN AW-6012  AlMgSiPb  good  very good  good  very good  difficult
 EN AW-6060  AlMgSi0,5  good  moderate  good  very good  good
 EN AW-6061  Mg1SiCu  good  moderate  good  very good  difficult
 EN AW-6082  ALMgSi1  good  very good  moderate  very good  good
 EN AW-7020  AlZn4,5Mg1  difficult  very good  good  moderate  good
 EN AW-7022  AlZnMgCu0,5  difficult  very good  moderate  moderate  good
 EN AW-7075  AlZnMgCu1,5   difficult  very good  good  very good  good

* Alle Angaben ohne Gewähr.

Aluminium alloy table - overview physical properties

In the following table you will find the physical properties of aluminium alloys clearly listed.

  • Aluminium hardness in (Brinell)
  • Aluminium tensile strength in (N/mm²)
  • Aluminium yield strength in (N/mm²)
  • Aluminium Thermal conductivity in (W/cm°C)    Conversion: 1 W/cm°C = 100 W/mk

 

 Aluminium EN-Norm

 old Norm

 Aluminium  hardness

 in ( Brinell )

 Aluminium

tensile strength

 in ( N/mm² )

 Aluminium

yield strength

 in ( N/mm² )

 Aluminium

Thermal conductivity

in ( W/cm°C )

 EN AW-1050A  AL99,5  22 - 35  75 - 110  20 - 60  2,1 - 2,2
 EN AW-2007  AlCuMgPb  100 - 140  370 - 470  250 - 325   1,3 - 1,5
 EN AW-2011  AlCUBiPb  110 - 130  370 - 410  270 - 315  1,4 - 1,6
 EN AW-2017  AlCuMg1  95 - 130  385 - 460  245 - 340  1,3 - 1,7
 EN AW-5005  ALMg1  29 - 58  145 - 185  110 - 120  1,6 - 2,2
 EN AW-5083  AlMg4,5Mn  70 - 100  275 - 315  125 - 180  1,1 - 1,4
 EN AW-5754  AlMg3  50 - 80  190 - 250  80 - 140  1,4 - 1,6
 EN AW-6012  AlMgSiPb  80 - 120  275 - 390  200 - 370  1,5 - 1,9
 EN AW-6060  AlMgSi0,5  70 - 80  215 - 260  160 - 230  2,0 - 2,2
 EN AW-6061  Mg1SiCu  58 - 88  180 - 290  110 - 240  1,7 - 2,0
 EN AW-6082  ALMgSi1  95 - 105  300 - 350  240 - 320  1,5 - 1,9
 EN AW-7020  AlZn4,5Mg1  95 - 105  330 - 350  260 - 280  1,3 - 1,6
 EN AW-7021  ALZn5,5Mg1,5  110 - 120  320 - 380  290 - 340  1,25 - 1,55
 EN AW-7022  AlZnMgCu0,5  165 - 170  410 - 520  330 - 460  1,25 - 1,55
 EN AW-7075  AlZnMgCu1,5   130 - 160  480 - 540  390 - 470  1,25 - 1,55

* Alle Angaben ohne Gewähr.

7075 Aluminium (aircraft aluminum)

7075 Alu is one of the many available alloys that deserves special mention. The field of application of 7075 Alu includes highly stressed constructions in aerospace and military applications. It is also known as aircraft aluminium. AW-7075 combines properties like: strength, stiffness, elasticity and corrosion resistance almost perfectly and is also very light.

 

There is a wide range of products made of this extraordinary material, including aluminium screws